What are Care values?

Care values are a set of written rules, which explains how people working in a particular profession should behave. It’s a document that provides guidance on ethically appropriate and recommended ways of behaving or dealing with certain situation. If a code of practice did not exist, people can get away with whatever they wanted to do. It helps to make people accountable for their actions and protects the rights of service users.

Everyone using a care service is entitled to a good standard of practice and care.

This means that everyone has equal opportunities in the care service, no one would be excluded because of their ethnicity, gender, and age and health status. Others won’t be preferred or labelled by care practitioner. An example of breaking the equal opportunity care service would be a nurse treating one patient better than another patient in the same clinic.

Due to the nurse doing this, the service user that is not treated equally and therefore, would not be performing to their potential and would further struggle to recover.

The nurse would apply this care value by helping each service users without labelling and not favouring.

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Equality does not mean that everyone is treated the same. What it does mean is that everyone has equal access to opportunities. This could mean that different people require different support to access opportunities. Being treated with dignity and respect is essential when working in a way that promotes equality.

Equality emphases on promoting fairness in services and organisations by the protecting people’s rights. An organisation would promote equality by not directly or indirectly discriminating against a protected characteristic, such as; race, gender, disability, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation and age.

In addition the care value seeks out to avert discrimination in all these areas. For example, an elderly service or employee would not be indirectly discriminated by the organisation by putting policies, rules or ways of doing things that have a negative impact on them. The organisation would make adjustments on the policies and rules in order to make it fair for the elderly person. This can be longer breaks or shorter working times.

Diversity does not simply refer to heritage and disability, but also gender, nationality and culture, sexual orientation and age. Diversity means in health and social care; is valuing people’s capabilities and knowing that they are not ‘disabled.’ It means to put the person first. It means not making expectations about their ability or performance. The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and admiration for one another. A health and social care organisation can promote diversity by providing a secure and accessible environment in which all the service users can be given the care they need.

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Promoting individual rights and beliefs links with anti-discriminatory practice. Discrimination means that certain individuals are treated less favourably than others because of a personal characteristic they may have. When promoting individual rights and beliefs the health and social care organisation would have to respect and understand the five rights that the service user; the right to dignity, the right to choice, the right to independence, the right to empowerment and the right to safety. The right to dignity, meaning that the service user has the right to preserve their privacy with particular information. This information can be their health status. The right to dignity can also refer to the way the service user is spoken to by a health and social care practitioner; not demeaning them in any way. The right choice means that the service user would be included in the decision that regards their care. For example; what food they should eat and what treatments they wish to have.

The service user being provided this information would lead to the right to choose. The right to independence is where the service user should be allowed and encouraged to do as much for themselves as possible, if the care practitioner do everything for them, they may feel useless and not try to do things for themselves and become dependent on the care practitioner for everything. The right to empowerment is where the service user is provided with the necessary support to be able to do things for themselves, this could be the provision of aids and adaptations, training or occupational therapy, which would enable the service user to do things for themselves and to maintain their right to independence. Lastly, the right to safety is where the care service would do everything possible to protect individuals from harm.

Confidentiality means keeping information private. It is important to keep information private, so that the service user stays safe from hazard. Confidentiality is a vital requirement for the protection of trust between service users and health and social care practitioners. The service users should be able to assume that information about their health, which they give in sureness will be kept confidential except there is a captivating reason why it should not. Service users need to trust their care practitioner and nurses have been listed as one of the most trusted among all care professionals. To maintain this status, a nurse must know how to maintain confidentiality of a service user. They are bound by a legal duty of confidence to protect personal information they may have come into contact with during the course of their work. Read about storing information in health and social care

This is not just an obligation of their contractual errands, but it is also a requirement within the common law duty of buoyancy and the Data Protection Act (DPA) 1998. The DPA gives the general public the right to know what information is alleged about them and delivers an agenda to safeguard that individual information is controlled appropriately. A service user’s confidentiality and privacy rights are a serious matter in the judgments of the law. Right of entry to service user information is for the people allocated to deliver care, and is on a “need-to-know” foundation. Every care practitioner apprehends and respects the necessity for service user’s confidentiality. Advanced technology, new demands on health care, and expansions in the world-at-large has made keeping confidently difficult.

http://www.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_importance_of_the_care_value_base (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.academia.edu/5795932/Understand_how_to_handle_information_in_social_care_settings (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://cartrefi.org/media/79350/support_staff_handbook_-_may_2012_-_for_website.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

Disclosure of a service user’s personal information is only considered legal and ethical if the service user has given full consent to the health and social care practitioner to breach confidentiality. Agreement to disclosure of information can also be indirect, once it is presumed the person in the care of a healthcare specialised understands that information may be shared within the healthcare group and is obligatory by law or be justified by motive. Consent is the endorsement or agreement for something to occur after deliberation. For consent to be legally valid, the service user must be informed, must have the capability to make the verdict in enquiry and must give consent willingly.

This means that the service user should recognise and comprehend how their information is to be used and collectively, there should be no shocks and they should comprehend the allegations of their verdict, particularly where declining to permit information to be shared is likely to affect the care they obtain. This applies to in cooperation of obvious and indirect consent. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act (1984) permits nurses to pass on information to the police if they are certain that someone may be seriously harmed or death may occur if the police is not informed. The concluding allows staff to reveal information to avoid, or to maintenance uncovering, study and penalty of serious crime and to stop abuse or serious harm to others, in cases such as rape, child abuse, or manslaughter.

http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhscoreprinciples.aspx (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://hee.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/321/2013/05/29257_2900971_Delivering_Accessible.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/documents/950/codeofpractice.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.hscic.gov.uk/media/12823/Confidentiality-guide-References/pdf/confidentiality-guide-references.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

Maintaining Confidentiality

Written records are key for conjoining formal information that would be studied at a future date. A nurse would use written communication when taking important notes about a service user. This is essential because sometimes information that isn’t written is hard to recall. The service user can also take their own notes on what the nurse had said about their healthcare. Nurses use written communication when assisting the service user because they see more than one service user, so keeping track may be difficult. If a nurse is storing private information of a service user in a written form. They would have to make sure that no one can access the information if they are not working to provide care for the service user. This is important because if other nurses or professionals can access the written information easily, they can use it to their advantage. An example would be if a nurse doesn’t file a personal information about a service user that is a celebrity (read more about types of record keeping).

These personal information can be the service user’s address, medical history, mobile phone number and etc. Another nurse or health and social care professional might idolise the service user. Therefore, if the nurse does not store the information of the service user safely, it can result in other healthcare professionals taking advantage of the information about that service user. The nurse shouldn’t leave information on the table and should store the private information in a filing cabinet that needs a key to be open. This would make sure that private information about the service user isn’t passed on to another person that isn’t involved in the healthcare of the service user.

A nurse storing information on the computer about a service user would have to make sure that the information is contained. If the nurse leaves the room, he or she would have to make sure that no one can access the private information by locking the computer. Locking the computer would prevent others that enter the room from seeing private information. Another way the nurse can store private information about a service user is in a file that needs a password to access. This would guarantee that the information regarding the service user can’t be accessed without knowing the password.

A nurse wanting to inform other professionals about a service user’s health condition would have to make sure that they maintain confidentiality. The nurse should not name the service user for the information. If the nurse informs the other professionals of the service user’s name, then they are breaking confidentiality. This is because if the nurse informed the other professionals the name of the service user they may act upon it. The other professionals can inform the service user about something regarding their medical state and maybe even ask the service user direct questions.

The nurse should conserve with the other professionals in an excluded location, such as a private room because if they are having a conservation in public places than others might overhear. When in a public place the nurse shouldn’t talk really loudly about a service user’s personal information because someone might overhear. However, most service user understand and accept that information must be shared within the healthcare organisation in order to be provide the best care. The service user are more willing to give the nurse consent in these situations.

http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Old_Guidance/PDFS/Service_User/5_service_users_healthcare_and_social_care.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/guide-hlth-socl-care-practnrs.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.ministryofethics.co.uk/index.php?p=6&q=7 (accessed on 27/10/2015)

If confidentiality is not maintained, the service user’s safety would be in danger. This is because anyone can access the service user’s personal information and they may use it to their advantage. This can have an emotional effect on the service user because they would feel anxious. If the service user personal information was known to someone that is very close to them. The person might take advantage of their condition and inform others. This would make the private information, not private anymore. If more people know about the medical condition of the service user, harm can be inflicted.

This is because the service user is an easy target for a person that has an aim to hurt them. The health and social care professional relationship with the service user would be restrained and worsened because confidentiality had been broken. The service user would lose trust in the care practitioner. This would have a dramatic effect on future communication. The service user would be restrained from telling personal information to the care practitioner because of fear that the information would be told to others again. This would have an effect on the care that would be given to the service user because the care practitioner wouldn’t be informed about the service user’s symptoms.

http://www.psni.org.uk/documents/317/Standards+on+Patient+Confidentiality.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2010)

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417696/Archived-information_sharing_guidance_for_practitioners_and_managers.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2010)

http://systems.hscic.gov.uk/infogov/codes/lglobligat.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015

Maintaining confidentiality is important in communication between a service user and a care practitioner because it establishes trust. Keeping trust and a safe environment is essential to every service user because without trust and a safe environment, it would cause problems both to the organisation and the person receiving care. The care practitioner would make sure that the communication between themselves and the service user is culturally appropriate. This would mean that the care practitioner would take a courteous and clear, careful attention to the service user consent and confidentiality. It is important to keep things secluded. The service user would be at ease because the care practitioner would store the confidential information safely so it is secure from getting into a mistaken individual’s hands.

Confidentiality being maintained can result on the service user telling personal information without worrying. The care practitioner would have to understand the difficulty people can have not trusting an organisation so they would have to follow the guidelines set by the organisation. This may make the service user feel more at ease because they would know the care worker is professional about the situation and their private information would stay private and not everybody would be able to access their private information.


Promoting Equality and Diversity

A nurse that needs to inform a service user who has a learning difficulty about treatment options for prostate cancer should not exclude the service user from making decisions about their health. Prostate cancer is an abnormal and uncontrollable growth of cells that is found in the prostate gland, the prostate gland is the size of a walnut and lies at the base of the bladder. Prostate cancer is more common for men. The nurse would have to take into consideration that the service user would need time to process the information about the treatment options because it can be worrying for a service user that may have prostate cancer. The nurse would have to use vocabulary that the service user would comprehend, which would help the service user to make an understanding of what the nurse had said about the treatment options.

The treatment options for prostate cancer is surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy, which can be hard to understand. The service user having a learning difficultly would mean that the nurse would describe each treatments in a breakdown because there would be certain words that the service user might not understand. The nurse can use Makaton when communicating with the service user. Makaton can help the service users that have difficulty in learning because signs and symbols are easier to understand than words. It is important for the nurse to describe the treatment options to the service user because the service user should have a say in the treatment they think would benefit them, even if they may have a learning difficulty.

http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=4071 (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.effectivepractitioner.nes.scot.nhs.uk/learning-and-development/clinical-practice/equality–diversity.aspx (accessed on 27/10/2015)

https://www.makaton.org/aboutMakaton/research (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691900 (accessed on 27/10/2015)

If a service user speaks to a nurse directly and they couldn’t understand what the other was saying, then the conversation between them would not be helpful because both sides don’t understand each other. An interpreter becomes more useful in this situations when English is not a service users first language. A service user who prefers to speak in a different language or their native tongue can cause ineffective communication between themselves and care professionals, such as a nurse whom may not understand. An interpreter could explain the conversation between the nurse and the service user. The service user being provided a translator would help them understand the nurse, and therefore they would become more involved in the discussion because they can voice their opinion orally. It is important for the service user to be involved in the discussion because it is them that is being provided the healthcare. If the service user was discussing a medication with the nurse and they had a problem with consuming the medication in particular day. For example; the service user might be fasting on one day of the week for a religious reason, so would not prefer to take their medication on that day. The service user can inform the nurse that they would like to take their medication on another day.

http://prostatecanceruk.org/media/2492017/follow-up-after-prostate-cancer-treament-what-happens-next-ifm.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.nets.nihr.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/81398/RS-08-1418-077.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.theguardian.com/healthcare-network/views-from-the-nhs-frontline/2014/sep/29/not-equipped-treat-patients-mental-health-problems (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/aug/13/two-thirds-britons-not-treated-depression (accessed on 27/10/2015)

The nurse can use a slower pace because talking too fast can make the service user or interpreter misunderstand or displace certain information, especially when there is a language barrier in the conservation. Research had shown that body language is the most effective component to convey information. The nurse can show the service user that they understand what they mean by putting up their thumb. This would make sure that communication is flowing rather than being blocked by language. Another body language the nurse can use is eye contact, which would show interest and concern to the service user. It would give the service user a sense that the nurse is with them. This is good way for the nurse to show the service user that they are working together and are not enemies.

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Cancer-of-the-prostate/Pages/Introduction.aspx (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-subjects/leadership/your-bodys-talking-moulding-your-body-language-into-a-confident-you/5045146.fullarticle (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.nursetogether.com/importance-body-language-nursing-communication (accessed on 27/10/2015)

It is important for a care practitioner in a healthcare organisation to respect the service user’s personal and religious identity and culture beliefs. The care practitioner would have to respect and be considerate to a service user. A Muslim woman might feel uncomfortable by a care practitioner that is a man staring directly at her. It is religious belief in Islam that a Muslim woman should not make eye contact with a man that is not part of their family. The male care practitioner in this situation might use paraphrasing skills to show that they are listening to the service user. This would also benefit the service user because they may elaborate on information.

If a female service user requests a female care practitioner, then the healthcare organisation should allow the service user to have a female care practitioner. The posture of the care practitioner should be straight and not slouching because it would show the service user that the care practitioner is engaging in the conservation and taking it serious. The care practitioner can also nod, which shows the service user that they are responding and engaging to the conservation. The care practitioner should be aware of the gestures they use because some can seem offence to a service user. For example, if a care practitioner might put their hands in their pockets, it can seem weird and make the service user uncomfortable due to social norms. It can cause the service user to have a flight response, which is an instinctual response to a threat.

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/prostate-cancer/treatment/types/treatment-options-for-prostate-cancer (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2011/08/24/j/y/s/NT-Ethical–Compassionate-Care.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110652/ (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.gcc-uk.org/UserFiles/Docs/COPSOP_2010.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

If equality and diversity is promoted by a healthcare organisation it can make the service user feel valued because they are treated with respect. Health and social care practitioners should know what they must do in order to comply with the regulations and the service users should be made aware of equality practice in a healthcare organisation. Trust between the service user and care practitioner should use would be established if they both respect each other. Every service user using the healthcare should be provided the same opportunities regardless of their differences. The differences can be race, gender, disability, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation and age. The service user won’t feel like they are discriminated by the healthcare organisation. The service user may feel like that they are being taken serious and are provided the best medical or social care by the care practitioner. Further, making them feel satisfied due to trusting the care practitioner and the healthcare organisation.

http://ocr.org.uk/Images/73204-unit-3111-promote-the-equality-diversity-rights-and-responsibilities-of-individuals.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/equality-and-diversity/Pages/equality-and-diversity-in-the-NHS.aspx (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/learning_english/leap/uklife/equality/ (accessed on 06/11/2015)

If equality and diversity is not promoted it can result on the service user feeling anxious and hurt because the health and social care practitioners and organisation had discriminated them. Problems occur when the health and social care organisations either don’t understand the legal requirements or fail to treat such matters with the care and commitment which they are required to by the law. The service user might even contact the police for the treatment they had received. It is essential that the management are valuing diversity and promoting equality.

This would guarantee that service users that are accessing the healthcare organisation would face minimum risk and are not discriminated directly or indirect. For example, a service user that is homosexual is discriminated by a care practitioner. In this situation, the healthcare organisation should have a complaint procedure which would include information on how the organisation deals with complaints from service users. If the organisation fails to have a complaint procedure than the service user can take their case to the police or legal advisers. It is vital for the healthcare organisation to have a procedure of complaint and a strict with discrimination.

http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/l/e/Acas_Delivering_Equality_and_Diversity_(Nov_11)-accessible-version-Apr-2012.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Old_Guidance/PDFS/Service_User/5_service_users_healthcare_and_social_care.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

https://www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/unhealthy_attitudes.pdf (accessed on 27/10/2015)

Promoting Individual Rights and Beliefs

A nurse would use sign language or talk slightly loudly to communicate with a service user who has a severe hearing impairment. This would ensure the nurse that the service user would understand the message they are trying to get across. This can make the service user feel like they are not being excluded from the conservation because they have a severe hearing impairment, furthermore making them feel a part of the discussion. Sign language enables interactions, so the nurse could get the service user to communicate back by using sign language. If the nurse was to talk slightly louder they would have to make sure that the location is secure and private. The nurse would also talk in a slow pace because it would help the service user with the hearing impairment process the information. Talking really fast can result on information being misunderstood or not even heard by the service user. Therefore, if the nurse talked in a slower pace, but not too slow because it can result on the service user losing focus on the conservation. A slow pace would help the service user understand and make their own opinion of the discussion.

http://www.channel4learning.com/sites/gcsease/health_social/1_13_detail2.html (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.dementiarights.org/examples-of-human-rights-in-health-and-social-care/ (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/guides/guide15/specialistcare/mentalhealth/ (accessed on 06/11/2015)

file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/2013-dignity-values-attit–person-centred-care.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

Hospitals and GPs would have to make sure that the service user are involved in the healthcare. The service users would have a chance to complain about the service if they found anything to be inappropriate or unacceptable directly to the manger. This is because the law states that all health and social care services must have a procedure for dealing professionally with complaints. By complaining directly to an employee or the manager, they would be responsible to tell you who to contact, how they will handle your complaint and how they will learn from your complaint. The service user would be provided with the opportunity to complain about a person or a care service that they feel uncomfortable with. The equal opportunity policy of complaint would give service user, nurses, health and social care professionals to know the particular problems in the hospital and GPs. When the service user is asked for verbal back, the health and social care practitioner would have sure that their body language, tone of voice and pace is not threatening.

If the care practitioner was to speak in a fast pace, it could give the impression that they are not interested in the conservation due to seeming that they are in a hurry. Slow pace can give the impression that the conservation isn’t important because when someone talks really slow, it is associate with boredom. The pace should be medium or average pace; this is not slow and fast pace, but it is in the middle. This pace would make sure that the service user is engaging in the feedback. Braille is a form of written communication for blind people. The written language is represented by patterns of raised dots that are felt with fingertips. Care practitioner would use braille as a way to communicate with service users that have a limited vision and those that are blind. This would help the service user understand the written form and provide their feedback to the healthcare organisation.

http://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/healthcare/equality-diversity-and-rights-3.html (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.slideshare.net/j.slack/what-is-the-care-value-base (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.ukessays.com/essays/social-work/equality-diversity-and-rights-in-health-care-social-work-essay.php (accessed on 06/11/2015)

If the service users’ right and beliefs are not promoted by the healthcare organisation it can result on the service user not having the right of choice, not being included in their healthcare and not given the chance to claim. This important because the service user should have the chance to make their own decisions regarding a matter. They can’t make informed choices about their care without the right kind of information. It is the health and care practitioner duty to inform the service user treatment options. The service user being excluded from information regarding about them.

https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/promoting-rights-of-individuals-6133490 (accessed on 06/11/2015)

https://tools.skillsforhealth.org.uk/external/141_HSC3111.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/Old_Guidance/PDFS/Service_User/5_service_users_healthcare_and_social_care.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/spp/publications/unit-publications/78.pdf (accessed on 06/11/2015)

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