Water Resources

Water is a scarce resource and an important basic necessity for the human survival. The quantity of potable water on earth is limited and its availability per person is reducing day by day due to increase in global population and damage to the environment. Though water available in nature is free, sizeable investment and planning is needed in order to make water available to people in the desired quality and quantity on a consistent basis.

India has the maximum number of people, 63 million, living in rural areas without access to clean water, according to a new global report released to mark World Water Day in 2017.

Access of safe drinking water was declared as a human right by the United Nations but remains a challenge for urban India. Depleting ground water, lack of proper rainwater harvesting and rising contamination in the ground water due to sewage and industrial effluent discharge is posing fresh challenges for the Indian cities, especially in low-income or resettlement colonies, which are struggling to get safe and affordable water.

While the affluent class depend on the purified water and packaged or bottled water, this class of consumer constitutes less than 5% of the total Indian population. As on date, over 95% of Indians still depend on free sources of water and other unreliable water sources.

According to the World Water survey, 31% of Indians had been in a situation where it was unsafe to drink water but had to consume it given no other choice and thereby suffered from water-borne diseases such as diarrhea and gastroenteritis.

According to World Resources Institute (WRI), over 100 million people in India are living in areas where water is severely polluted. In fact, of the 632 odd districts that were examined for ground water quality, only 59 districts were marked safe. The Government of India estimates that 70 per cent of available water is unfit for consumption without prior treatment. The WRI research also shows that 54 per cent of the nation is facing high to extremely high water stress and this is only bound to get worse.

Lack of safe drinking water poses many health hazards such as diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid which have seen millions of registered cases during the past 3 years. In a quest for clean drinking water, research also indicates that on an average, women and young girls spend 700 hours every year filling and carrying water for home consumption which directly affects their economic productivity.

Adequate drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are all essential ingredients to ensure good health. The same is true for proper wastewater management, which is a basic prerequisite for environmental welfare and protection. Improving upon these services will bring economic gains while also helping to build resilience given increasing climate variability.

Safe drinking water received attention in 2014 when Mr. Modi assumed office of the Prime Minister and highlighted the need for drinking water and sanitation in India. This was followed by the launch of the Swachh Bharat initiative that added further momentum and strength to the implementation of WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) facilities in the country. With the Government of India’s emphasis on CSR spending, corporates have developed a renewed focus on safe drinking water as its significance in terms of meeting basic needs of people is clearly understood along with the fact that the social impact being delivered is unparalleled.

Many independent organizations have taken up the initiative and are tackling the problem of availability, affordability and accessibility with purity under a novel approach for rural India. One such private sector initiative is JanaJal, who install and operate safe drinking water ATMs in India. JanaJal is an integral part of the Prime Minister’s Swachh Bharat Campaign and through support from NGOs, Charitable Foundations and Corporates have implemented some landmark award-winning community drinking water projects in the country. The company has a strong focus in Maharashtra and Delhi NCR and is rapidly installing water ATMs at railway stations, bus stands, municipal areas and places of religious sanctity.

A majority (71 per cent) of Indians said that safe drinking water had improved over the last five years. 62 per cent of the Indians believed that the government was doing enough to support access to safe drinking water. While a lot remains to be done, it is imperative that the government agencies collaborate with private sector companies to be able to deliver sustainable projects on ground that can deliver this precious resource to people in a consistent and affordable manner.

Importance of Drinking Water

  1. Eliminates Toxins Studies have shown that water helps to remove toxins from the body, especially from the digestive tract.
  2. Protects against cancer Studies have found that the greater the intake of water, the lower the chances of bladder cancer.
  3. Uplifts Mood Drinking water makes you feel refreshed and improves the state of your mind.
  4. Promotes Healthy Skin Water helps to flush out harmful toxins from the body, thereby alleviating the risk of acne and pimples.
  5. Optimum weight Drinking water before a meal helps to lose weight faster.
  6. Boosts Brain Function Drinking enough water helps to boost mood and energy levels, thus increasing brain performance.
  7. Reduces Headaches Studies have proven that adequate consumption of water can subdue headaches in those who are dehydrated.
  8. Prevents Pain Muscle cramps, strains, and aching joints can be prevented by keeping the body hydrated always.
  9. Keeps Kidneys in Good Condition Kidneys eliminate waste from the body, balance fluids, and help control blood pressure. Adequate consumption of water keeps kidneys working properly.
  10. Adds Shine To The Hair Drinking enough water helps to make strands shinier, smoother, and more reflective.

So whether you want younger skin, shinier hair, a healthier body or all three, water is the world’s best panacea! Besides being an imperative part of the fluids in the body, water is required by each cell to function properly. Life can certainly not exist without water.

What is Water Scarcity?

There are millions of people all over the world who don’t have access to water, or, if they have access, that water is unable to be used. About 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water and 3% of it is actually freshwater that is fit for human consumption. Around two-thirds of that is tucked in frozen glaciers and unavailable for our use. According to WWF, some 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water, and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year.

Clean drinking water is scarce and there are millions of people across this globe who spend their entire day searching for it. Yet, people who have access to safe, clean drinking water take it for granted and don’t use it wisely.

Water scarcity involves water crisis, water shortage, water deficit or water stress. Water scarcity can be due to physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity. Physical water scarcity refers to a situation where natural water resources are unable to meet a region’s demand and economic water scarcity is a result of poor water management resources.
That being said, what are the causes of water scarcity, what are the effects of water scarcity, and are there any solutions that we can start to explore? Here’s a quick look at all of those things in a bit more detail.


According to Wikipedia, “Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. It already affects every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year. More than 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water.”

Causes of Water Scarcity

  • Overuse of Water: Water overuse is a huge issue that a lot of people are dealing with. It may be overused on people, animals, land, or any other number of things. It may also be used for recreational activities without any care about the effects that it may have on the world around them.
  • Pollution of Water: Water pollution is a huge problem, especially when you’re looking at areas that don’t necessarily have a good sewage system. Pollution can be anything from oil, to carcasses, to chemicals, and to fecal matter. No matter what it is; it makes a lot of issues for the people who may need to use it.
  • Conflict: If there is conflict over an area of land, it may be difficult to access the water that is located there. In the worst case scenarios, people could end up dying if they try to access the water in these areas (due to violence). This can result in a variety of other issues, including pollution, which we discussed in the previous point.
  • Distance: There are a number of areas throughout the entire world that deal with water scarcity because they just aren’t close to anywhere that has water. Areas that are considered to be desert, or areas that are secluded, may not have somewhere that the people can get water effectively.
  • Drought: A drought is, in short, an area which is not getting enough rainfall to be able to sustain the life that is residing there. Some areas are in perpetual drought, whereas other areas may be dealing with a drought on occasion. Droughts are common all over the world, and there is little that can be done to prevent such things from happening.
  • Governmental Access. In some countries, specifically those with dictatorships, the use of water may be strictly controlled by those in power, causing a scarcity for those who may be located in those areas of the world. These governments use it as a source of control over those that they are governing, which can be a huge problem.

Effects of Water Scarcity

  • Lack of Access to Drinking Water: The biggest problem that happens when you have water scarcity is that people are not able to get fresh, clean drinking water. The human body can only go so long without water, and a lack of drinking water can result in a number of other problems, which we discuss below.
  • Hunger: If there is no water that can be used in order to help water the crops, then you are going to have people that are going hungry. Animals will also die, which will result in a lack of meat as well. Water scarcity, in short, causes starvation to occur en masse for both people and animals that are located in the area.
    • Lack of Education: Water scarcity makes it difficult for people to get the education that they need or that they deserve. Why? Mainly, because those children are either too sick to go to school (which we will discuss below), or they are working to help get water to the home and the family.
  • Diseases: If you don’t have clean water access, then you will be more likely to get diseases from the water that you do have. Whether you’re drinking the water or using it for bathing, those diseases will get into the body and, in a number of cases, the people carrying those diseases will pass away.
  • Sanitation Issues: Without access to clean water, there is no way to clean food, dishes, or people. When people are not given access to proper sanitation, disease (which we talked about above) ends up becoming much more of an issue than it would have been otherwise. It also causes mental health issues, including depression and anxiety.
  • Poverty: All in all, people who are dealing with water scarcity are often stuck in poverty as well. These people are not able to get the resources that they need in order to be able to thrive, and instead are just barely surviving through these difficult times.

Solutions for Water Scarcity

  • Education: There are plenty of opportunities out there that people can use in order to learn more about the world around them. By educating those who are not dealing with water scarcity, they can be in a position to help. Those who are dealing with it can get educated on how they can prevent the problem from becoming even worse in the future.
  • Recycle Water: There are plenty of technologies out there that allow you to recycle rainwater and other water that you may be using in your home. Consider learning about how you can recycle water. Not only does it help to prevent scarcity, but it can save you some money as well.
  • Advance Technology Related to Water Conservation: There has been a lot of work in the world of water conservation, but there is also a lot that needs to be done in order to ensure that the rest of the world is able to conserve water. Putting money and effort into conservation could be life saving.
  • Improve Practices Related to Farming: Farming and irrigation are often a huge culprit when it comes to water scarcity. Because of that, we need to improve practices so that we don’t use as much water and those who are using water are using it to its fullest potential. Technology also needs to advance in this manner.
  • Improve Sewage Systems: Clean drinking water starts with a good sewage system. Without proper sanitation, the water in an area becomes ridden with disease and any number of other problems. By improving the sewage systems in these areas, we can prevent water scarcity from becoming any worse.
  • Support Clean Water Initiatives: There are organizations located all over the world that are looking to bring clean water to areas that don’t have it. Consider donating to these organizations, either with your time, your skills, or your finances (whichever you can afford to give to them).

So, as you can see, there are a lot of things that we need to consider when we’re looking at water scarcity and how we can deal with it. If we start to look at this issue as a whole, and we work hard to make sure that we are able to make a difference when it comes to this widespread issue, we’re going to be in a much better place to help people all over the world in preventing this issue from getting worse.

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