Understanding Children and Young People

You must also explain the following: Gross Motor Physical Development Physical Maturity Communication Intellectual / Cognitive Social Development Emotional and Behavioral Development Personal Development -3 years – In the early stages of a child’s life they would rely completely on their caregiver for everything; such as feeding, bathing, changing and nurturing. Their way of communicating that they want something would be to cry. A child will learn physical skills from 0-3 years which start with being able to roll over, then sitting up, then crawling, then walking with assistance to walking unassisted.

Language will also begin to form starting with babbling, then a toned babble that expresses their pleasure or displeasure at something, they will start to respond to their name and also respond to the word “no”. Words such as “mama” or “dada” will follow and by age 3 they should be able to say simple sentences and phrases and follow simple gain speed and agility in their walking, running and skipping.

They will learn movement that will enable them to swim and ride a bike and be able to incorporate motor skills into games.

They will rarely show signs of fatigue and will seek active games and environments. A child will enjoy being around other children at this age and will interact with and engage with them well in conversation, games and activity. Over the course of this period children will learn to imagine through play, fantasy ND exploration. Fewer tantrums will happen over this development stage as a child is now learning to express their feelings through words and their sense of humor will also start to show through which they have picked up from spending time with adults as well as other children.

A child also starts school in this development stage and will start to learn the alphabet and spelling, counting and simple math. They will also learn how to behave in a school setting and therefore know when to be quiet, to share and to respect their elders and peers. 7-12 years – Physically a child will now be fairly independent and coordinated. They may start wanting to test their physical strengths by doing such things as climbing trees and Jumping off high surfaces. They will now become more aware of their body and may request privacy when getting dressed or bathing.

From a cognitive aspect a child will day-dream a lot and be absent minded a lot of the time. However they will be able to look at problems from more than one angle now and be more diplomatic. Their sense of humor will now be well developed and they will enjoy hearing and telling Jokes. They will be able to write and spell well and count up to 100 and do simple sums and equations. They will also start to self evaluate and notice things they can improve on rather than have it pointed out.

Socializing is still something a child will enjoy at this age but they will also start to want their own space; especially when feeling down. Fear of real life events will also become more apparent in the child such as burglary, kidnapping or other events they see on the news. Self image will also be huge to a child and they may want to be seen in a certain way by others to gain acceptance or approval; for example not wanting their parent to hug or kiss them in front of their friends so they kook cool. 12-16 years – This stage is very different for males and females.

The female at this age will begin puberty, her body will develop more and her menstrual cycle will start. For a male they will also begin puberty and their body will develop more in terms of height, muscle and weight. Their voice will deepen and their strength will increase dramatically. Intellectually both sexes will start to learn more life skills and begin to think more about their future and set themselves personal goals that they want to achieve. They will now know how to argue better, reason and make better decisions.

They may challenge the views and opinions of adults as they believe more in their own decisions and choices now and are eager to be more independent. 16-19 years – At this point a child has essentially completed physical maturation and their physical features are shaped and defined. The probability that they will act on their sexual desires also increases at this point. They now become very concerned about their future and begin to make decisions based on these concerns; a child will normally be having secondary education at this point and soaking up vital information that will lead to qualifications.

Socially a child will be very active during this period and have many friends who they choose to confide in rather than their opinions and ideas on their lives. Emotionally they can be all over the place; they can appear moody, angry, impulsive, self centered and stubborn and most of all they will worry about failure. Q. (1. 2) Explain the following and give an example for each: Sequence of The sequence of development is the normal pattern at which a child should develop certain skills. The sequence has time frames for physical, emotional, cognitive and social development.

For example a child should learn to roll over before it learns how o sit up. Rate of Development The rate of development varies from child to child. Although they follow the same developmental sequence, the time they can take to do this can be different. For example one child might start the teething process at 6 months old; where as another may not start teething until 9 months old. Why is the difference important? It is important to remember that development is often split into different areas but are connected and linked with one another.

So when planning or working with a group of children the same age it has to be taken into account that some will be at he average stage, below average and above average stage of development and not be at the same sequence of development. Knowing this information it has to be taken into consideration when looking at the bigger picture of all the children’s needs and how this can be met. Q. (2. 1) Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors. A child who has health problems or a disability may not develop as quickly as other children due to their body not allowing them too.

With health problems a child may not be able to go to school as often and therefore will all behind with their learning. They may also be restricted with certain activities due to their health issues and so will be behind in their physical skills such as running, jumping, climbing or riding a bike. The above also applies to a child with a disability; physically even more so as their bodies would not be able to do many of the physical activities that a child without a disability would be able to do; even Just simple things such as walking or sitting up depending on the severity of the disability.

Another internal factor would be if the child had learning difficulties; this would mean that hey would not develop as quickly as others intellectually. The family setting of a child is also an important factor in their development. If a child is brought up in a children from a happy family as they will not have the right role models to learn from and if they don’t see emotions such as love and affection then they won’t know what it is or how to display it.

Also the financial situation of a family impacts massively on a child’s development; if a family have poor finances then a child would lose out on holidays, activity days, after school clubs such as swimming or dancing and in worse ease scenario’s a child could be poorly fed and clothed. This would impact on their social development as they wouldn’t be able to go to the after school clubs and activity days so their ability to make friends and share will be slower paced and their physical skills such as swimming, dancing, balance and co-ordination may suffer too due to not having the outlet to practice them.

A parent or career who is suffering from an illness is also a factor in impacting a child’s development. A child may be a career for them and so will not always be able to play out with their friends or attend school n a regular basis so they will lose out intellectually, physically and socially. However they would be learning life skills such as cooking, cleaning and responsibility although perhaps a little bit earlier than what they should be. (2. 2) Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. The main external factor would be the area that the child is growing up in.

A child becomes familiar with their surroundings and the local area. If the area is quite secluded and in the middle of nowhere then the child will suffer socially due to not being able to play out with friends. Or if the area is not very nice and has high rates of violence, crime and gang culture then a child may get involved with the wrong type of people and therefore not develop in the right way morally, socially or intellectually. They may miss school, become reclusive around their family and look up to the wrong type of role models in their society. Another external factor would be the school that the child goes to.

If a school is in special measures or not providing an adequate standard of education then a child will suffer intellectually as they will not be learning at the rate of a child who attends a school that is of a good tankard. Q. (3. 1) Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development, using different methods Formal observations – This is done mostly in an educational setting through exams, assessments and tests to summaries a child’s development and flag up any areas that may need extra attention. Formative methods such as target child, tick box check lists and time sampling are popular in schools.

A teaching assistant could be asked to monitor a particular child that is struggling in class and may use a teacher checklist to highlight the issues that need attention. This would then be passed onto a parent or career. Comparison with milestones – Look at the normal sequence and rate of development and the milestones a child should reach at certain ages. Compare them to where the child in question is up to to gain a clearer faster rate. Information from colleagues, parents or careers -It is important to share information between the important adults surrounding the child or young person.

Communicating all the information gathered by having meetings, telephone calls, sending letters or emails will mean that all parties are aware of what’s going on and will be able to work together in the best interests of the child. Common Assessment Framework – This is a shared assessment and planning framework for use across all children’s services and all local areas in England. It aims to help the early identification of children and young people’s additional needs and promote co- ordinate service provision to meet them. Q.

How do you record, report, show this information? It is of vital importance that all information recorded and reported about a child or young person is accurate and factual and not opinionated. This information can be shown in results of exams or tests that the child has completed or graphs and tactical data displaying the outcomes of the child under observation with the outcomes of other children to show the distinctions. The information recorded from the observations should not make assumptions or Judgments and should be purely factual of what happened.

Share the finding with the relevant people only such as parents, careers and the child and share only in accordance with the policies and procedures of the setting. The information recorded should be signed and dated and stored privately so no outside parties can gain access to the information. If the information is stored electronically then a secure password needs to guard it and the password should be regularly changed. Q. (3. 2) Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern.

There are many reasons and factors why a child is not following the expected pattern of development. For example the child may be emotionally unsettled due to a number of reasons. Family life plays a significant part in a child’s development. If for instance the child is living with parents who constantly argue and fight this will have an effect on the child and cause stress. Also if the child is from a one parent family there may be difficulties as a parent trying to Juggle everything on their own may not have as much time to spend nurturing and boosting a child’s development.

The child may be at a disadvantage environmentally due to poor housing or area in which they live. If a house is poorly heated the child may experience bad health due to dampness. Or the child may be living in cramp conditions and unable to play and explore so easily. Not so well off families may be living in poorer areas with little access to amenities which can cause stress to parents which will affect the child’s Some children have a poor diet and this can affect their growth and thus affect the physical side of development.

There have been many studies on diet and its effects and results have shown that a child who has a nutritious and healthy diet achieves more in life. It is difficult for a family on a low income to promote a healthy diet for their child and thus can result in poorer health and physical issues. Also some children’s genetic code may affect the pattern in which they develop. This could mean that they are slower to develop but no reason is found. Trauma or illness could impact on a Child’s development. If they have been subject to trauma during their life then this could impact on many developmental areas depending on the trauma.

If the trauma was witnessing repetitive domestic violence then this could have an effect on their emotional and social development; they may be withdrawn and secluded and not make friends easily or they could use violence as the answer to their problems as that’s what they have witnessed growing up. If a child has suffered from illness a lot in their lives then they will have fell behind at school due to hospital appointments and being to poorly to attend so they will fall Enid on an intellectual level and also on a social level due to not being able to socialize in school or at home playing out or at the park like other children.

A young child that is ill will also suffer physically as they will not be learning at the rate that others are with their gross motor skills; such as running, hopping, Jumping and climbing. Q. (3. 3) Explain how disability may affect development. A disability; dependent on how severe could impact on all areas of development. Physical – A child with a disability would not have the use of all of their body. So hinges like walking, running, raising their arms or sitting up may be difficult or impossible in severe cases.

They would not be able to participate in physical activities such as going to the park, riding a bike, playing football or other sports. In some cases where a child may be confined to a bed or a wheelchair then they may gain weight due to not being able to exercise. Intellectual – If a child suffers from a learning disability then this means that they do not learn at the expected rate and find it more difficult to take in, process and retain information. This would put them Enid at school and in a social setting too as they wouldn’t learn as quickly as others how to share, make friends and converse with other children.

If a child is physically disabled they may miss school due to hospital appointments or their bodies not being able so they would fall behind with their work and miss out on important learning. Emotional – A child or young person living with a disability would feel different to everyone else. They may feel like they don’t fit in to society and could feel left out and secluded. This could cause them to become emotionally unstable and eave outbursts of upset, anger and frustration at an early age and have a negative and grim view on life.

Social – If a child is disabled then they may not be able to go them to traveling or doing simple things like playing out. If they are unable to go to places where children socialize then they won’t know how to make friends or share or converse about common interests as they won’t have been around it. A child with disabilities may spend a lot more time around adults due to having careers and medical experts around them so they may find that they get on better with people older than them. Q. (3. 4)(licit 19 1. Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. Discuss different agencies that you have worked with to promote positive outcomes for Young People. I f a child’s development is not following the expected patterns it is important to implement early intervention to maximize development. There are several types of intervention which can come from professionals, adoptions, technology or equipment.

Intervention can come from – Social workers – can offer information, counseling and support. Can also organize and manage care plans and support packages. They also liaise with other agencies; for example they can bring on board a family councilor if they feel it’s needed. Speech and language therapists – can work 1:1 with children to accelerate learning and development in communication. They can also work with parents and careers to guide them with how to help with this at home too.

Educational Psychologist – can identify behavioral and learning difficulties, create individual plans and give advice and support. Youth Justice Service – can help children with behavioral problems. Physiotherapist – can help children with physical developmental delay problems e. G. Enhance mobility, relieve muscle spasm & pain, clear mucus from lungs for a child with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrician / G. P. / Nurse – help children with medical conditions, monitor growth and development and deliver care and support. Learning Support – work closely with individual children at school.

Give assistance in lessons, help with educational delay, behavior problems and lack of concentration. They can also offer additional lessons or home tutoring if needed. SENSE (Special Education Needs Co-ordination) – a key person within a childcare or school setting who can identify children with learning difficulties and know how to best support them. They work closely with outside agencies to deliver a full care plan. Psychiatrist – trained in mental health. Can diagnose, support and monitor a child’s wellbeing and give an expert opinion from a mental health point of view.

Health visitor – promote mental, physical and social well-being in a child and give them help and advice in all of these areas. In my line of work I associate with many outside agencies. The main one being the Youth Offending Team; who do fantastic work with our young person around crime, aggressive behavior and fire setting; all of which he has been arrested for in the past. The team communicate well with us and keep us updated on the young person’s progress and our young person enjoys his sessions with them and learns a psychologist that has been assigned to our young person.

She visits once a week and although our young person doesn’t say an awful lot to her; we find that talking to her about his behaviors and emotions gives us some clarity on his emotional state and well being. I also work closely with the local police and we have police community service officers visit the house from time to time to do direct work with our young person around crime prevention which he actually really enjoys. Q. (4. 1) Analyses the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.

Early identification of speech, language and communication delay is extremely important as the chances of improving these skills are greater at a younger age as there is more time to work on it and a younger child also soaks up information faster. Catching the problem early also means that it gives their family and professionals the chance to work on the child’s speech before they encounter difficulties such as falling behind at school or not making friends as easily as others; catching the problem and resolving it in the early years will mean a child not having to feel different or isolated when they get older and are able to feel this.

Outside agencies can be informed and the child will receive the specialist support they require. If these delays are not identified the child may suffer from lack of confidence, less able to manage their Houghton and will more than likely experience emotional problems due to not being able to outlet their thoughts and feelings through speech like others so easily can around them. All aspects of a child’s development are at risk from this if it is not addressed and given the correct treatment or therapy.

From a social aspect a child would find it harder to make friends if they cannot communicate as well as the other children around them and Join in their conversations. From a behavioral aspect a child may become increasingly frustrated and annoyed at not being able to convey heir thoughts and feelings through speech and they may start to misbehave and act out for attention as their way of getting their point across. From a cognitive development aspect a child may not be seen as being as bright or as cleaver as other children at school or nursery due to not responding to questions they are asked or tasks they are given.

From an emotional aspect a child may struggle to convey theirs due to their speech difficulties and could become quite withdrawn and isolate themselves from others. Late recognition gives the child a lesser chance of improving heir speech and this could massively impact on their adult lives as it would affect their ability to get a Job, the ability to be independent, to be social and to be accepted into society. This could then lead to low self esteem, zero confidence and possibly depression. Speech, language and communication.

Multi-agency working brings together practitioners from different sectors and professions, to provide an integrated way of working to support children, young people and families. It is a way of working that ensures children and young people who need additional support have exactly the right professionals around them. If a child needs support from a speech therapist, a social worker, teachers and health workers, then a team of those professionals will be set up (with consent of the child, young person and family) and will work together to improve their lives.

Team members will share information and support one another so the child’s needs are addressed efficiently and effectively. In some circumstances, the multi-agency team works together under one roof, in other cases they may operate virtually. In all groups, the practitioners will meet regularly to discuss the needs of the child or young person, to plan and deliver coordinated and targeted interventions. Multi-agency working could involve anyone whose Job or voluntary work puts them in contact with children, young people and their families.

It is likely to include people from professional backgrounds including social work, health, education, early years, youth work, and police and youth Justice. It may also involve people from the third or private sectors. Because the needs of children and young people can be very different, the composition of a multi-agency team will differ from case to case. What is important is that each person brings with them their own peccaries skills, expertise and insight so that the child or young person gets the best support possible.

A child with a speech problem would probably be seen first by the health visitor at home who would then voice their concerns to a doctor, after being seen by a doctor, the doctor would give a medical diagnosis and if in their opinion the child needed more specialist help then they would refer the child to a specialist clinic for more observation and expert opinion and help. A child may then be assigned to a speech therapist and in some cases a physiotherapist and a psychologist if necessary.

While all this is going on the Special Educational Needs Officer (SENSE) over the child’s school would need to be informed so that an individual learning plan can be put into place for this child. Teachers and teaching assistants would be included in drawing up this plan and the school would have to share the progress the child is making on the plan, the difficulties they are facing with it and the milestones they reach with the other agencies’ involved so they can either continue with their current treatment or try something different that may work more effectively for the young person.

IQ 1 . (4. ) Describe the different communication methods / styles you have used with the young people you work with. Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication delay. The young people that I have looked after have all been over the age of 15 and so communicating with them I have never found too difficult as they are at an age of maturity and then I speak clearly at them and make sure they understand what it is I am asking for them to do.

I make sure to be polite and use a positive tone of voice when I ask something of them. If I have to ask a second or third time then my tone will be more authoritative and firm which will communicate to them that I need them to do what I am asking. If I’m Just talking to the young person in general then my tone is always upbeat and I always keep eye contact with them so they know that I am fully engaged in the conversation and they have my full attention.

My body language is always approachable as I have my arms unfolded and my body turned towards the young person if they are speaking to me. I never point, stand over or square up towards a young person as this communicates aggression and ill manors and sets a bad example to them. From a very early age simply playing with your child and singing hem nursery rhymes and reading them stories is crucial to their speech development as it is feeding language into their brains. Hearing the sounds and tones and syllables will eventually lead to them repeating it back to you.

As they become slightly older it is important that you introduce them to other games and activities that they will learn from such as puzzles, simple books and alphabet toys like mats or talking teddy bears. If a child is surrounded by all of this as well as their parents using language around them constantly then they will pick up what they hear and learn from the activities and play. Unit 18 IQ 2. 2. 1) Explain why social and emotional identity are important to the wellbeing and resilience of children and young people.

Social and emotional identity are ever changing, growing, and developing with the child as a result of the child’s life experiences. Those experiences shape a child’s sense of who they are, where they belong and how society views them. How a child is spoken to and treated impacts on their emotional identity. Negative interaction with a child or young person will result in a negative identity. If a child is ignored, not given high expectations, lacks support and encouragement they may view themselves s someone of little importance or worth.

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