Response to each peer 2-3 paragraphs Peer 1 : Evidence-based practice is a fundamental principle used in healthcare settings and in nursing practice. The first step of implementing evidence-based pra

Response to each peer 2-3 paragraphs 

Peer 1 : Evidence-based practice is a fundamental principle used in healthcare settings and in nursing practice. The first step of implementing evidence-based practice into nursing practice is to develop a clinical question regarding nursing care (Polit & Beck, 2021). The clinical questions that are formed are then often formulated into what is known as a PICO question. PICO is an acronym which represents the elements of the clinical question, which include the patient or population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), and outcome (O) (Schmidt & Brown, 2022). Once formed, the PICO question will guide the research in finding the best available evidence for quality clinical care. 

The patient or population portion of a PICO question represents the individuals that are involved in the study. Intervention represents the intervention or therapy that will be implemented in the situation. Comparison refers to the alternative intervention or therapies which the intervention will be compared to. Outcome represents the conclusion or result that the healthcare scenario is interested in (Polit & Beck, 2021). In the field of surgical care, the factors that determine patient outcomes always take precedence in consideration of best practice. The following PICO question has been formulated to demonstrate the development of clinical practice regarding surgical care:

PICO Question: In patients undergoing surgical procedures, what is the effect of an on-time surgical start, in comparison to a delayed surgical start, on the patient’s surgical outcome?

P: Patients undergoing surgical procedures

I: On time surgical start

C: Delayed surgical start

O: Patient’s surgical outcome

In this scenario, we consider if the surgical outcome of patients is affected, either positively or negatively, by the delay of surgical procedures. When considering the PICO format of questioning, the population being considered are surgical patients. The intervention being considered in the scenario is surgical cases being started on time. The comparison of on time surgical starts for the cases would be delayed surgical cases. The analysis of the patient’s surgical outcome is then examined, determining the necessity of on-time surgical procedures in surgical care. 

Peer 2 : When researching for evidence-based practice (EBP), PICO is a mnemonic to help researchers guide their questions on what they want their study to focus on. PICO is based on four components, with each letter standing a purpose for the research. The “P” represents the population of the study or what type of patient is being studied (Polit & Beck, 2020). This is where the study subject is being described. The “I” stands for intervention or exposure that the patient or population of the study is getting, while the “C” is typically a comparison off whatever intervention is being used (Polit & Beck, 2020). Lastly “O” is the outcome of what is being studied (Polit & Beck, 2020). The outcome typically is the researcher’s goal of what they are trying to show evidence-based practice for. Below is an example of what each letter in the PICO question stands for.

P: Patients with central venous catheters

I: Daily CHG baths or wipes

C: Not using CHG while bathing

O: Central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI)

PICO Question: For patients with central venous catheters, does daily CHG baths and/or wipes, compared to not using CHG daily, reduce the risk of central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs)?

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