University of Phoenix Material Psychodynamic Personality Theories Matrix Using the text for this course, the University Library, the Internet, and/or other resources, complete the following table. Theory |Assumptions |Reliability |Validity |Application | |Psychoanalytic Theory |Psychoanalytic theory originated with the |Based on his observations | “It is true that Freud essentially |Freud developed a theory that described development | | |work of Sigmund Freud. Through his clinical |Psychoanalytic theory was an |considered psychoanalysis a pure science, |in terms of a series of psychosexual stages. | |work with patients suffering from mental |enormously influential force |but that is a view which has been |According to Freud, conflicts that occur during each | | |illness, Freud came to believe that childhood|during the first half of the |superseded by the current view, which puts|of these stages can have a lifelong influence on | | |experiences and unconscious desires |twentieth century but reliability |more emphasis on the issue of how fruitful|personality and behavior.
| |influenced behavior. |is difficult or next to impossible|psychoanalytic treatment is as a | | | | |to substantiate.
Even if an inordinate amount of| | | | | |time is spent writing about theory within | | | | | |the profession, clinical practice plays | | | | | |the central role in the professional ives| | | | | |of psychoanalysts (Michels, 1983).
As a | | | | | |science, psychoanalysis is imperfect, but | | | | | |it has stood the test of time as an | | | | | |important basis of psychotherapy” (Plaut). | |Individual Psychological |What is known of human thought and behavior | Some theories have fallen out of |Behavioral psychology, also known as |Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in| |Theory |has come to the forefront because of the |favor, while others remain widely |behaviorism, is a theory of learning based|therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills| | |various psychology theories.
One example is |accepted, but all have contributed|upon the idea that all behaviors are |and behaviors (Cherry). | | |the behavioral theories giving examples how |tremendously to our understanding |acquired through conditioning. Advocated | | | |conditioning is used to learn information and|of human thought and behavior |by famous psychologists such as John B. | | | |behavior.
By learning more about these |(Cherry). |Watson and B. F. Skinner, behavioral | | | |theories, you can gain a deeper and richer | |theories dominated psychology during the | | | |understanding of psychology’s past, present | |early half of the twentieth century | | | |and future (Cherry). |(Cherry). | | |Analytical Psychological |Jung theory rested on the assumption occult | According to the Myers & Briggs |Other studies have found that the | Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine were | |Theory |phenomena can and do influence the lives of |Foundation, the MBTI meets |reliability and validity of the test have |fascinated by Jung’s theory of psychological types | | |everyone.
Individuals are said to be |accepted standards of reliability |not been adequately demonstrated |and recognized that the theory could have real world | | |motivated by repressed experiences and the |and validity (Cherry). |(Cherry). |applications.
Myers created the first pen-and-pencil | | |experiences of our ancestors known as | | |version of the test during the 1940s, and the two | | |collective unconscious coming to us through | | |women began testing the assessment on friends and | | |our ancestor’s experiences (Cherry). | | |family.
They continued to fully develop the | | | | | |instrument over the next two decades (Cherry) | |Object Relations Theory | Object relations is the assumption that a | According to Feist and Feist | Testing was done by Test of Object | This theory is known for it’s ability to organize | | |person’s psychological life is made from |(2009), the ability to generate |Relations (TOR) built according to |information regarding the behavior of infants (Feist | | |relations with others. The object is another |research for object relations is |Loevinger’s model of test development |& Feist, 2009). Melanie Klein obtained her theory, as| | |person and this usually consists of the |low, but the attachment theory is |(Zvelc, 2002). With the TOR test, 118 |did others, from atching closely the interactions of| | |mother and child, usually during the first |rated high by judgement. |students took part in first version and it|the mother and infant. It has been found that parents| | |months of the child’s life (Daniels, 2007). | |was found to be theoretically valid by at |who use loving and caring nurturing during the first | | | | |least three experts in object-relations |few months of an infants live will grow a better | | | | |theory (Zvelc, 2002). |bond. |Psychoanalytic Social |Psychoanalytic social theory is of the | This theory is unreliable as far | The theory is well organized for people | Applying this theory to use for neuroticism, because| |Theory |assumption that a person’s social and |as research for normal |with neurotic personalities as Karen |of the validity of this field, is the best as it has | | |cultural life, especially in childhood, is |personalities, it was basically |Horney has provided excellent framework on|not been tested for normal personalities (Feist & | | |responsible for the personality of that |done for problematic |neuroticism (Feist & Feist, 2009). |Feist, 2009). Karen Horney based most of her work on | | |person (Feist & Feist, 2009). |personalities. Enough research has| |dealing with people with neurotic problems. | | |not been done to falsify the terms| | | | | |as there are few testable | | | | | |hypotheses (Mangold, nd). | | | |Interpersonal Theory |Interpersonal theory is believed by Harry Sullivan did not write enough |Again, there is not enough with this |Sullivan applied his theory to helping his patients | | |Sulllivan to be how a person develops a |information of his research and |theory either, as with the others in the |develop foresight and improve interpersonal relations| | |personality, as he believed that without |beliefs to organize research, |interpersonal theories, to actively |and operate in an orderly way (The Glaring Facts, | | |other people interacting, a person would have|although the theory is logically |investigate hypotheses from Sullivan’s |2011). | | |no personality(Feist & Feist, 2009). |conceptualized and holds together |theory, as it fails in the ability to | | | | |for a unified entity (Feist & |organize knowledge (Feist & Feist, 2009). | | | |Feist, 2009). |The theory is consistent but unorganized. | | References Cherry, K. About . com psychology, Psychology Theories http://psychology. about. com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories. htm Daniels, Victor (2007). Object relations theory. Retrieved October 28, 2011, from http://www. sonoma. edu. /users/d/daniels/objectrelations. html. Feist, J. , & Feist, G. J. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Mangold, (n. d. ). Psychoanalytic social theory – karen horney.
Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://www. ivcc. edu/uploadedFiles/_faculty/-Mangold/Horney%20and%20Psychoana lytic%20Social%20Theor… Plaut E. R. Psychoanalysis: From Theory to Practice, Past to Present, Northwestern University http://www. personalityresearch. org/papers/plaut. html The Glaring Facts (2011). Sullivan and interpersonal theory. Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://www. theglaringfacts. com/sullivan-interpersonal-theory… Zvelc, G. (2002). Validity of test of object relations (tor) – basic informations for researchers. Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://www. institut-ipsa. si/datoteke/VALIDITY%20OF%20TEST%20OF%20OBJECT%20RELATIONS-%20researchers. pdf.
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