1. Explain the process of nociception using the four phases of: Transduction: occurs when a toxic stimulus in the form of traumatic or chemical injury, burn, incision, or tumor takes place in the skin, along with somatic and visceral structures. Transmission: second stage the impulse moves from the level of the spine cable to the brain. Understanding: shows the mindful awareness of an uncomfortable feeling. Modulation the discomfort message is hindered.

2. What is the difference in between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. What words will individuals explain nociceptive and neuropathic discomfort? Nociceptive discomfort results from direct activation of discomfort nerve fibers, either due to chemical, inflammatory or mechanical mediators.

Neuropathic discomfort refers to discomfort that is produced or sustained by the anxious system. Nociceptive pain is discomfort that can be sharp, well define and situated. Neuropathic pain is difficult to find it is burning, electrical, stabbing, feeling numb, dull pains and tingling.

3. List Different source of pain: deep somatic pain, cutaneous discomfort, psychogenic pain, referred pain, sharp pain, chronic pain.

4. Discuss how intense and persistent pain differs in regard to nonverbal behavior. With sharp pain there are physiologic indications of acute pain client guards or rub the location, heart rate boost, increase in blood pressure and repertory rate and in chronic discomfort there is no modification in pt’s bp, respiratory or hate rate.

5. Identify the most reputable indictor of an individual’s discomfort. Subjective report is the most trustworthy indicator for pain.

6. Remember question for initial pain assessment.

Where is the Location of the discomfort,
Period: is the discomfort permission, does it keep you awake,
quality: what does the discomfort seem like is the pain dull, burning, hurting? Intensity of the discomfort: how strong is the discomfort on a scale of 0-10 absolutely no being no discomfort and 10 being extreme discomfort.

What makes the pain worst?

What makes the pain much better?
7. Select pain assessment tools that are suitable for adults, baby and kids. Evaluating discomfort in adults you can utilize McGill pain survey, numeric ranking scale, descriptor scale and PAINAD for dementia client.

Infant CRIES

Examining a child use the face discomfort scale wong-Baker.
8. Describe physical examination finding that may indicate pain. Swelling, inflammation, deformity crepitation , bruising, lesion, atrophy, tachycardia, elevated BP, vomiting.

9. Recall how poorly controlled acute and chronic pain adversely affects physiologic, social and cognitive functioning. increase heart rate , insomnia, blood pressure, and peripheral vascular resistance ,t chronic stress, suicidal thought, and depression this can interfere with work, domestic activities and personal care.

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