Literature ReviewThe internet…

Literature Review
The internet is a global linking of devices that allow information transfer. The internet was established in the early 1960’s by the U.S department of defence for military purposes. It is a fact that the internet is one of the greatest advancement in the world of information technology as it has become a useful instrument that has fostered the process of making the world a global village. The Internet provides an environment in which millions of people participate and engage in the creation and exchange of information.

It allows for the exchange of information and for interaction among individuals in real time, making transport and distance no longer a problem.
There are approximately 2.4 billion people on earth who has access to the internet with over 70 percent of them using the internet at least once a day. This amounts to a total of 144 billion emails being sent every 24 hours (internet world statistics, 2012). What started out as a hobby for some computer literate people has become a social norm and way of life for people around the globe (Boyd, 2007).

Accordingly, Internet access in schools has increased greatly over the last 20 years (Berson, 2000).
In a research article, Ying-Fang Chen and Samuel S. Peng (2005-2006 academic year juniors)
A study done on a variety of randomly selected University students in Taiwan showed that heavy Internet users and non-heavy Internet users differed significantly on a number of dimensions. Non-heavy users had better relationships with administrative staff, academic grades and learning satisfaction than heavy Internet users.

Tuckman (1975) defined academic performance as the apparent demonstration of understanding concepts, skills, ideas and knowledge and proposed that grades clearly depict the performance of students. Heavy users were more likely than non-heavy Internet users to be depressed, physically ill, lonely, and introverted.
According to a journal of Education and Sociology done in Pakistan, Muhammad Musaud Asdaque, December, 2010.
The use of the internet is one of the major factors affecting the academic performance and social life of university students. The number of hours spent on internet will affect the grades of students depending on if the internet is used for study purpose or social purposes. Many studies have been conducted regarding the type of information the end-users seek and obtain on the Internet and in which circumstances they prefer electronic sources to paper sources(Tenopir et al.2003).Also , students can gain from others’ knowledge and experiences, participate in chatrooms, share ideas and solutions.
Teens spend approximately 2.3 hours online a day, 80 percent of that time, on social networking sites (Roiworld, 2010). Students who multi-task between social networking sites and homework are likely to have 20% lower grades than a student who does not have a social networking site in visual range (Lenhart, A, 2009, April). Also, many researchers believe that excessive use of the internet has the potential to become an addiction (Griffiths, 1995, 2000). Some, involvement on the Internet begins to have serious, negative consequences. When such consequences are minimized or ignored while Internet use increases, Internet dependence is occurring. As of 2005, it is estimated that 6% of users are Internet dependent (Villanova Counseling Center). The internet can act as a major distraction to students if not properly managed. However, some studies show that students’ primary use the internet for school work specifically, searching the web for information needed for school projects (Kraut et al, 1996). This in turn, can improve the academic performance of a student.

Research Gap
Several studies have been conducted previously conducted relating how academic performances are affected by the excessive use of social media, internet and television. The research gap which existed were the affects of internet on the student’s health and behavior.

Objectives
To determine the effects of television, social media and internet on:
a) Health of students of IIUI
b) Behaviour

Effects of social media on the students of IIUI
In this world science ; technology our lives, though are becoming easier but also complex at the same time. Electronic media is one of the pillars of country transformation and development of our lives is becoming more aware and updated. Electronic media important for youngsters who developmentally think concretely and are unable to differentiate fantasy from reality. Moreover, time spent with media decreases the amount of time available for pursuing other more healthy activities such as family time physical activity, sports, community service, and cultural pursuits. Electronic Media has a powerful effect on health and behavior. Media strength exposure in form of murder mystery movies, stories filled with strength and torture has a larger effect on later violent behavior. Youth watching violence on TV or playing violent video games tend to be more violent are more prone to confrontation with their teachers, may be involved in fights with their peers ; see a decline in school successes. Girls experience more fear from media as compared to boys.

Depression
Teenagers who are addicted to the Internet are more likely to develop depression or other psychiatric problems than teens who are classified as normal internet users. By using such apps related to chatting with strangers and the bold screening of movies and dramas through it creates a fantasy world for the girls thus, separating them from the reality. Rather than spending their evenings reading a book or cooking, girls instead spend up to five hours a night on their laptop – obsessively tracking the lives of, old friends and acquaintances and work colleagues. Spending too long online can expose a ‘dark side’. Those who didn’t previously suffer from depression were made to feel gloomy and vulnerable, and those who did often logged off feeling worse. There appears to be a direct relationship between spending more time online and feeling less happy about life, as well as an increased risk of addiction to the internet. People who spend excessive amounts of time online may not even realize how much they are affected by a lack of social interaction, and symptoms of depression may sneak up on them. For people who do find themselves online more frequently, it may be useful to know these signs of depression from the National Institute of Mental Health:
• Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
• Decreased energy and fatigue
• Feelings of guilt, worthlessness or helplessness
• Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
• Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness or excessive sleeping
• Irritability and restlessness
• Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once found pleasurable
• Overeating or appetite loss
• Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps or digestive problems
• Persistent sad, anxious or “empty” feelings
• Thoughts of suicide or suicide attempts

Sleep Disturbances
Excessive internet use is associated with sleep disruption. Sleep depriviation can lead to neagative outcomes such as fatigue and compromised immune system. Accessing the internet via a mobile when in bed makes it harder for your mind to relax further inhibiting sleep. In addition, the electromagnetic radiation associated with mobile has been found to delay melatonin production. Excessive exposure to blue light emitted from the screens of internet-connected devices can also disrupt the sleep-wake cycle, making sleep more difficult. When our internal body clocks become disrupted, we may even develop a circadian rhythm sleep disorder such as delayed sleep phase disorder, which can further exacerbate the health effects of sleep deprivation.

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