Bipolar Disorder: Causes and Symptoms

In the field of mental illness, health and well-being, the word affect is used to label “emotion” or “mood” (Ciccarelli, Saundra K. & White J. Noland 2016). Mood conditions are instabilities in reaction to stressful situations and are indicated as emotional conditions (Ciccarelli & White 2016).

Even though the array of human desires runs from profound, concentrated grief and hopelessness to thrilling joy and ecstasy, under ordinary conditions, individuals stay in the middle of those extremes, neither too unhappy nor too joyful, nonetheless calm (Ciccarelli & White 2016). The moment that stress or some added influence thrusts an individual to one side of the spectrum or the other, mood disorders is the resulting consequence (Ciccarelli & White 2016).

“In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition: DSM-5, disorders of mood can be found under ‘Bipolar and Related Disorders’ or ‘Depressive Disorders’” (Ciccarelli & White 2016). A person’s character progresses early, is steady, and has a robust genetic element. (Harley, J. A., Wells, J.

E., Frampton, C. M. A., & Joyce, P. R. 2011). “Someone’s distinctive quality of awareness and character have been drawn in as reasons which impact the natural way in which a person acts or feels to bipolar disorder and might aid to differentiate among severe melancholy illness, bipolar illness, and bipolar illness with hypomania, bipolar two (Harley, J. A., et al 2011). When an individual undergoes phases of disposition that array from severe melancholy illness to overexcited incidents, extreme enthusiasm, vigor, and happiness, that person is said to subjected to a form of bipolar disorder (Ciccarelli & White 2016).

Still, yet, a person might encounter phases of disposition at the dual extravagances, in a number of cases the person may encounter a disposition that extends from what is the standard of normal to overexcited, and might or might not experience bouts of hopelessness, called bipolar one disorder (Ciccarelli & White 2016). In the overexcited occurrences, the person is tremendously joyful or ecstatic lacking any actual reason to be so joyful (Ciccarelli & White 2016). Irritation, grumpiness, unable to relax or even sit still, and apparently limitless get-up-and-go are also common (Ciccarelli & White 2016). The person may seem silly to others and can turn out to be hostile when not permitted to convey the outstanding, and sometimes delusional, campaigns that may happen in obsession (Ciccarelli & White 2016). Dialogue can be fast and leap from one subject to an alternative subject (Ciccarelli & White 2016).

Individuals in the overexcited state are frequently creative awaiting their nonexistence of any kind of skill to put the whole scenario together (Ciccarelli & White 2016). In bipolar 2 disorder, lengths of ordinary temperament are joint with occurrences of severe melancholy and occurrences of hypomania, a degree of disposition that is raised but at a degree lower or a reduced amount of full mania (Ciccarelli & White 2016). In a positive understanding, bipolar attitude illnesses are sporadic disorders with a full reduction after each incident that react fine to lithium (Kupka, R. W. 2018).

Some patients have an illness course somewhere in between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, conveniently classified as a schizo-affective disorder (Kupka, R. W. 2018). Moreover, patients may or may not have a family history of mood disorders, a personal biography complicated by traumatic life events, a comorbid of anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorder, or personality disorder (Kupka, R. W. 2018). Still, treatment practice, treatment guidelines, and clinical trials tend to disregard this heterogeneity, lumping patients together under the shared diagnosis of bipolar disorder, only to be differentiated into large subcategories such as bipolar I or bipolar II (Kupka, R. W. 2018). Although the cross-sectional clinical syndromes of mania, hypomania, and depression may have many similarities among patients, it is in the longitudinal illness course where the individual differences become apparent (Kupka, R. W. 2018).


  1. Ciccarelli, Saundra K. & White, J. Noland (2016) Psychology an Exploration 4th Edition Pearson, New York, NY 10013
  2. [bookmark: _Hlk4706704]Harley, J. A., Wells, J. E., Frampton, C. M. A., & Joyce, P. R. (2011). Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression. Depression Research & Treatment, 1–6.
  3. [bookmark: _Hlk4899444][bookmark: _Hlk4899372]Kupka, R. W. (2018). Staging Bipolar Disorder: Theoretical Exercise or Clinical Reality? Dusunen Adam: Journal of Psychiatry & Neurological Sciences, 31(4), 329–330.
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