Alcohol: Influence and Effects on Human


Alcohol is an organic substance composed of hydroxyl group is replaced for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, Alcohol is considered as the organic derivatives of water as one Hydrogen atom is replaced by the alkyl group. Type of alcohol converted in alcoholic beverages, ethanol, extract from fermenting sugar with the yeast. The best know alcohols are ethanol and methanol, ethanol is used in pharmaceuticals, toiletries and fuels, and mainly used in hospital to sterilize instruments, moreover alcohol in alcohol beverages.

Alcohol is divided in to primary, secondary, tertiary in which carbon of alkyl group is pledged to the hydroxyl group. In room temperature alcohol are colourless liquids or solids. Alcohol having low molecular weight is highly dissolved in water, if the molecular weight is increased it becomes less soluble in water and their vapour pressure boiling point densities and viscosities increase. Alcohol containing 4 – 10 carbon atoms are viscous, or oily as well they have fruity odours. Alcohol containing 12 carbon atoms are solid at room temperature, boiling point of alcohol is higher ethanol, with a molecular weight (MW) of 46, has a boiling point of 78 °C (173 °F).

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is mainly produced during the historical times, mainly by fermentation of fruit juice fermented juice is sealed in a storage, thus how wine is produced. Ethanol is also named as grain alcohol because it is produced from corn, wheat, barley and rye, such things are first boiled in water for the production of mash, which is brood with malt to yield the wort and malt produce an enzyme,converts starch in to sugar maltose and then incubated with yeast which gives an enzyme, convert maltose to glucose and the enzyme zymase, convert glucose to ethanol.

Alcohol may also decrease the chemical activity which affects the nervous system, that inhibit the behavior and may also increase the activity of the pleasure –seeking process,it may results in less inhibited in their actions and words and people get engage in immediately enjoyable activities if they are unsafe too and it may also cause tolerance, cognitive impairment, motor incoordination.

Brain Pathology

People drink alcohol is due to forget about the problems, feel them more relaxed, become intoxicated, mainly they enjoying sporty events and have fun during holidays. If the alcohol consumption is during the pregency it may affect the fetus brain development which may occur in the last trimester, it may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders which may be behavioral, physical and psychological disabilities like premature or decreased birth weight, birth defects, increase in chance of still birth and increase in chance of fecal alcohol syndrome. There are two primary sites where alcohol acts on the body where it serves as indirect agonist at GABAA receptors and as well indirect antagonist at NMDA receptors. GABAA receptors play a great role in short term as well as long term effects of ethanol, this receptors belong to the transmembrane ligand –gated ion channels like nicotinic acetylcholine,5-HT3 receptor and glycine and helps in rapid neuronal transmission. When GABAA receptors is highly exposed to ethanol, the GABA-gated chloride uptake is about 260%. In long term effects of alcohol on GABAA receptors the protein levels and mRNA change during continues exposure. Long term alcohol intake may also decrease the action of the mesolimbic neurons and release of dopamine in NAC. GABAA opens the chloride channels and produces inhibitory postsynaptic potential and also increases the action of GABA at GABAA receptor. Alcohol inhibits neurotransmitters like glutamate, at N-methyl-d- aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor and the it discharge other inhibitors like serotonin and dopamine. Drinking small amount of alcohol increases the amount of dopamine in NAC (nucleus accumbens). As per the 2015 national survey for the alcohol use and health 86.4 percent of peoples ages about 18 or older reported that they drink alcohol, 70.1 percent in the past and 56.5 in the past month. Alcohol may damage heart, liver, kidney, brain, joints, esophagus and muscle, in the case of long term intake of alcohol may cause shrinkage of frontal lobe in brain which can lead to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In about 80% of alcoholics have thiamine deficiency and consist of symptoms such as Wernicke’s encephalopathy which one is the major which include paralysis of the nerves which impairs the movement of eyes, mental confusions, difficulty with muscle coordination., blackout occurs in those who drink quickly which increases the blood alcohol levels, heavy intake cause cardiovascular damage, may also cause chronic pancreatitis, behavior changes and impairs to take decisions, slurred speech, chronic users may cause mouth, throat and esophagus cancers, lung infections caused by bacteria and virus (tuberculosis and pneumonia), bloating gas and pain full ulcers, increase risk of osteoporosis ,muscle cramps and weakness. The main symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as, tremors, anxiety, nervousness, nausea, irregular heart beat, high blood pressure, heavy sweating, in severe cases hallucinations, seizure, delirium may occur. It may also effect the sexual and the reproductive health like men who drink alcohol may sense erectile dysfunction and lower your libido and ma also decrease the immunity of the body. Very nearly 2,000 individuals under 21 years old kick died every year in vehicle crashes in which underage drinking. Liquor is associated with about portion of every single brutal passing including youngsters. There are five stages of alcohol disorders, first stage is having access to alcohol rather than use of alcohol and in this stage, second stage use field for the trial and occasional use to regular or weekly use of alcohol, third stage is which increase the intake of alcohol and developed problems in their social, educational, vocational, fifth stage is when the persons feels normal when he intakes the heavy amount of alcohol also include buying or stealing the alcohol for regular alcohol intake.


Treatment for alcohol abuse, people should enter a detoxification (detox) program that incorporates the utilization of close therapeutic help, checking, and solution of drugs like chlordiazepoxide (Librium) or clonazepam (Klonopin), facilitate the side effects of liquor withdrawal, drug counseling like short term behavioral goals that helps the individual to decerase or stop the intake of alcohol and cognitive- behavioral about 9% of alcoholics Disulfiram is prescribed. Acamprosate helps by decreasing intake for alcohol in those who have stopped drinking.


Prevention in older teenagers and as well adults include limiting the availability of alcohol and enforcing rules that include issues like drinking and driving, abusers should be involved in personal, social and resistance skills, engage in any of the community activities and should do more extracurricular activities from childhood.


Introduction to liquor during the time of fast mental health has annihilating impacts, This introduction causes neural pulverization through apoptosis. Liquor and barbiturates have comparable impacts. Liquor has emphatically strengthening impacts and, through its anxiolytic activity, It has NMDA receptors and a agonist at GABAA receptors. It animates the arrival of dopamine in the NAC. Withdrawal from long haul liquor misuse can prompt seizures, an impact that is by all accounts brought about by compensatory upregulation of NMDA receptors.

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